It’s been 200 years since Mount Tambora in West Nusa Tenggara erupted with a vengeance. The impact of the eruption was so powerful, in addition to loss of life of more than 60 thousand people, the northern hemisphere also experienced a year without a summer.
“People are forced to eat cat and mouse,” says Stephen Self, a volcanologist at the University of California, Berkeley, was quoted as saying. Self is also an expert in the study of matter eruption of Tambora in 1815.
The temperature of the earth at that time also fell by an average of one degree Celsius. Aerosols of Tambora filling the atmosphere, so that in addition to lowering the temperature, agriculture also suffered crop failures that led to starvation and disease in seedlings of North America, Europe, and Asia.
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“Tambora eruption opened the eyes of the scientists that the effects of volcanic eruptions can be global,” said Head of Geological Agency of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Surono, told CNN Indonesia, in Jakarta, Thursday (9/4). “There is no mountain that is out of reach when the eruptions reached VEI (Volcano Explosivity Index) 7 as Tambora.”
Indonesia, Negeri Most At Risk
An international team Global Volcano Model Network ever to study and rank the countries most at risk for natural disasters such as Tambora eruption.
The report, entitled “Global Volcanic Hazards and Risk” is scheduled to published in May by Cambridge University Press. Well, Indonesia turned out to belong to the most risky countries face more devastating volcanic eruptions.
To create the ranking, the team calculated how often the volcano erupted in a country within the last 10,000 years and the harm it causes. They also count the number of people living in areas prone to eruptions. They found that there were 800 million people living within a radius of 100 kilometers from the volcano.
In Indonesia, according to records Surono, there are 4 million people who live near the volcano. Volcano area, he said, did so because the human magnet for fertile land and contains a lot of water.
In the ranks of the riskiest countries, in addition to Indonesia, are: Philippines, Japan, Mexico, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Ecuador, El Salvador, and Kenya.
Tambora erupts without warning
Based on the records of Stephen Self, Tambora eruption occurred without prior warning. The mountain was actually starting to look very active in 1812. But more than 1,000 years because no ‘anger’, the area around the mountain inhabited by many people.
There are at least 10 thousand people are killed by pyroclastic, material volcanoes, and tsunamis around the current Tambora erupted in 1815.
According to the report “Global Volcanic Hazards and Risk”, since 1600 there are at least 278 thousand people were killed by volcanic eruptions. There are five volcanic eruptions in the world which cause 58 percent of damage, including Tambora.
Of all the deaths, 33 percent were killed by heat clouds and 20 percent by tsunami waves; about 14 percent were killed by lava. Only 887 people were killed by lava.
Then, as much as 24 percent more deaths occur indirectly. They died of starvation and disease lips. Volcanic ash, landslides and lightning, also caused the death.